Plantas de cobertura de invierno suprimen malezas y proveen N al maíz cultivado en sucesión

  • Hugo Abelardo González Villalba Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Departamento de Ciência do Solo. Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Kansas State University, Department of Agronomy. Manhattan, KS 66506, United State.
  • Dorivar Ruiz Diaz Kansas State University, Department of Agronomy. Manhattan, KS 66506, United State.
  • Evandro Luiz Schoninger Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso, Departamento de Agronomia. Alta Floresta, MT, Brazil.
  • Carlos Andrés Leguizamón Rojas Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Departamento de Suelos y Ordenamiento Territorial. San Lorenzo, Paraguay.

Resumen

Plantas de cobertura (PC) y rotación de cultivos son componentes esenciales de un sistema de producción agrícola sostenible. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron (i) evaluar el efecto de PC en la provisión de nitrógeno (N) al maíz cultivado en sucesión, y (ii) evaluar el efecto de PC en la cobertura de suelo (CS) y supresión de malezas (SM). Tres PC de invierno fueron evaluadas: avena negra (AN) (Avena strigosa Schieb), lupino blanco (LB) (Lupinus albus), y nabo forrajero (NF) (Raphanus sativus L.), en forma asociada y no asociada. Las asociaciones fueron: AN+LB, AN+NF, y NF+LB. Además, fueron incluidas cinco dosis de N (0, 60, 120, 180, y 240 kg ha-1 N) en parcelas en situación de barbecho. Las PC proporcionaron N mineral al maíz en sucesión, variando de 25 a 53 kg ha-1 N en el caso de AN y LB, respectivamente. Las asociaciones de PC proporcionaron el equivalente a 38-42 kg ha-1 N fertilizante. La CS y la SM variaron con cada PC. Los resultados sugieren que AN puede proporcionar rápida CS, y una CS más prolongada después del acamado, probablemente debido a la alta relación C:N y lenta descomposición de sus residuos, lo que podría resultar en inmovilización de N y disminución de su disponibilidad para el maíz. La AN también demostró buena capacidad de supresión de malezas. La asociación de PC es una alternativa que permite combinar los beneficios de cada especie de PC, mejorando los servicios al ecosistema promovidos por las mismas.

Biografia del Autor

Hugo Abelardo González Villalba, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Departamento de Ciência do Solo. Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Kansas State University, Department of Agronomy. Manhattan, KS 66506, United State.
Visiting PhD Student. Department of Agrononomy. Kansas State University

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Publicado
2019-01-23
Cómo Citar
GONZÁLEZ VILLALBA, Hugo Abelardo et al. Plantas de cobertura de invierno suprimen malezas y proveen N al maíz cultivado en sucesión. Investigación Agraria, [S.l.], v. 20, n. 2, p. 100-109, ene. 2019. ISSN 2305-0683. Disponible en: <http://www.agr.una.py/revista/index.php/ria/article/view/450>. Fecha de acceso: 26 jun. 2019
Sección
ARTÍCULOS CIENTÍFICOS

Palabras clave

Cover crops; Soil cover; Crop rotation; Fertilizer nitrogen; Weeds